In many cities of Russia, you can meet Gypsies. The attitude towards them is ambiguous: from hostility to indifference. These people, while with us near many years, still remain the mysterious people.
Gypsies stay except for Russia in many countries in Europe, Australia, in America, North Africa. They never had their own state.
Gypsy tongue belongs to the Indoary Group of Indo-European Family, it is divided into several dialects.
Researchers believe that the ancestors of the Gypsy from India, or rather, from the north-western part of it. According to one of the versions of 1000 people were presented by the Indian Padishah Sheikh Persia. According to another version, a group of people left the native lands. It happened about the V century.
The Roma migration path from India followed mainly through Iran, Afghanistan, Armenia. Later, their place of residence became Byzantia. In the XV century, Roma appeared in Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. After a hundred years, they were already throughout Europe.
Gypsy came to Russia from the Balkan countries, as well as from Germany and Poland. The first mention of them was in the decree of the Empress Anna John in 1733, in which fees were established with the Roma for the content of the army. At first they were attributed to the peasant class, but by the end of the XIX century a lot of bins and merchants of Gypsy origin appeared.
During World War II, many representatives of this people were killed by the Nazis (there are no accurate data on quantity). But at the same time, Tsygan was actively involved in hostilities, served as tankers, artilleryrs, pilots, infantrymen. Partisans and health workers met among them.
Currently, representatives of this ethnos often fall into reports of criminal news due to fraud and drug distribution.
And there are already beautiful and piercing gypsy romances, and you can not often see incendiary dancing on TV. Although not so long ago, there was a great interest in the musical culture of this freedom-loving people.
Gypsies - people without a state. For a long time they were considered to be immigrants from Egypt
and called the "Pharaoh Tribe", but recent studies denied. In Russia, Roma gave rise to a real cult of his music.
Why Tsygano - "Gypsy"?
Gypsies do not call themselves so. Their most common self-relocation of the Gypsy is "Roma". Most likely, this is the influence of the life of Roma in Byzantium, which received this name only after its fall. Prior to that, she mentioned part of Roman civilization. Common "Romal" - a charting case from the ethnonym "Roma".
Also Roma call themselves Sinti, Kale, Manush ("People").
Other peoples call Gypsy very differently. In England, their name is Gypsies (from Egyptians - Egyptians), in Spain
- Gitanos, in France
- Bohemiens ("Bohemitsa", "Czechs" or Tsiganes (from Greek - τσιγγάνοι, "Tsingani"), the Jews are called Roma צוענים (Tso'an), from the name of the Biblical Province of Tsoan in ancient Egypt.
The word "Roma", the usual for the Russian ear, conditionally dates back to the Greek word "atcingani" (αθίγγανος, ατσίγγανος), which means "untouchable". This term first meets in the "Life of Georgy Aphonsky", written in the XI century. "Conditionally," because in this book "untouchables" is called one of the heretical sects of that time. So, it is impossible to argue with confidence that in the book we are talking about the gypsies.
In the Middle Ages, Roma in Europe considered the Egyptians. The word Gitanes itself is derived from Egyptian. Egypts in the Middle Ages were two: upper and lower. Gypsy was so nickname, obviously, by the name of the top, which was located in the field of Peloponnese, from where they were migration. Belonging to cults of Lower Egypt is visible in life even modern Gypsies.
Tarot cards, which are considered the last preserved fragment of the cult of the Egyptian god of the Tota, were brought to Europe by Gypsies. In addition, Roma brought the art of embalming the dead from Egypt.
Of course, Gypsies were in Egypt. The path from the Upper Egypt was probably the main way to migrate them. However, modern genetic studies have proven that the Gypsies are not from Egypt, but from India
Indian tradition has survived in Gypsy culture in the form of practices for working with consciousness. The mechanisms of meditation and Gypsy hypnosis are in many ways similar, Gypsies are good animal trainers, like Hindus. In addition, the gypsies are peculiar to the syncretism of spiritual beliefs - one of the features of the current Indian culture.
The first Gypsies (Sirwa Groups) in the Russian Empire appeared in the XVII century in Ukraine
The first mention of the gypsies in Russian history is found in 1733, in the document Anna Ioannovna about new taxes in the army:
"In addition to the content of the regiments, it is collected from Gypsies, as in small Russia they collect and in the Slobodsky shelves and in the Great-Russian cities and villages attributed to the Slobodsky regiments, and for this collection to identify a special person, since the gypsies in the census are not Written. "
The next mention of Gypsies in Russian historical documents is found in the same year. The gypsies of Ingermanlandia on this document were allowed to trade horses, since they "showed themselves with these natives" (that is, they already lived here is no longer the first generation).
A further increase in the Gypsy contingent in Russia went with the expansion of its territories. When joining the Russian Empire, Poland's part in Russia appeared "Polish Roma", with the accession of Bessarabia - Moldovan Roma, after the joining of Crimea
- Crimean Gypsies. It is necessary to understand that the gypsies are not monofational community, therefore the migration of different ethnic groups of Roma took place in various ways.
In the Russian Empire to Roma treated quite friendly. On December 21, 1783, Decree of Catherine II, ranked Gypsy to the peasant class. They began to charge taxes. At the same time, no special measures for compulsory reassembly of Roma were conducted. More so, they were allowed to attribute to any class, except noons.
Already in the Senate Decree of 1800 it is said that in some provinces "Gypsies went to merchants and a gentleman."
Over time, several of them began to appear in Russia, some of them managed to acquire considerable wealth. So, in Ufa
Gypsy merchant Sano Watermelov, who successfully traded horses and had a good spacious house. His daughter Masha went to the gymnasium and studied French. And Sano Watermelon was not alone.
In Russia, the musical and executive culture of Roma was appreciated. Already in 1774, Count Orlov-Chesnish caused to Moscow
The first Gypsy Chapel, which later grew into the chorus and marked the beginning of a professional Gypsy performance in the Russian Empire. [C-Block]
At the beginning of the XIX century, the fortress gypsy choirs were released and continued independent activities in Moscow and St. Petersburg
. Gypsy music was an unusually fashionable genre, and the Roma themselves often and assimilated in the Russian nobility environment - marriages in the Gypsy girls were enough well-known people. Enough to remember Uncle Leo Tolstoy
Fedor Ivanovich Tolstoy-American.
Help Roma Russian and during wars. In the war of 1812, the Gypsy communities sacrificed large amounts of money for the content of the army, supplied the best horses for cavalry, and the Gypsy youth went to serve in Ulansky shelves. [C-Block]
By the end of the XIX century, not only Ukrainian, Moldovan, Polish, Russian and Crimean Roma, but also lyuli, Karachi lived in the Russian Empire
and Bosh (since the accession of the Caucasus and Central Asia), and at the beginning of the 20th century from Austria-Hungary and Romania
Mocked Lobari and Coldrara.
Currently, the number of European Gypsies is determined from 8 million and to 10-12 million people. In the USSR, 175.3 thousand people were officially numbered (census 1970). In Russia, according to the 2010 census, about 220 thousand gypsies live.
Figure 1. Gypsy girl. Eastern Europe Sustainer Unknown
And the Jews, and Roma unites Vera to their own special purpose, which, in fact, helped them to survive - after all, the Jews and Roma during the centuries lived on the rights of minorities among other nations, with alien languages, customs, religion, but at same time was able to preserve their identity. Like Jews, Roma turned out to be scattered in various countries of Europe, the Middle East, the Caucasus, North Africa. Both people "kept roots", practically not mixing with the local population. Both Jews and Gypsy there are divisions on "their" and "strangers" (Rom-Gazho in Gypsy, Jews-Goe in Jews). It is noteworthy that neither those nor others have made up the majority of the population - and therefore were by the beginning of the 20th century without statehood  .
Before the establishment of the state, Israel, Jews from different regions, Eurasia used different languages in everyday life. Thus, the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe spoke almost exclusively on Eidis - the language of the German group, very similar to German, but using the Jewish alphabet. Persian Jews and the Jews of Central Asia spoke on the Jewish-Persian and other Jewish-Iranian languages. The Jews of the Middle Rastok and North Africa spoke on various Jewish-Arabic dialions kts. Sephards, descendants from Spain and Portugal in the XV-XVI centuries of Jews, spoke in Sefard (Ladino), close to Spanish. Gypsies who do not possess their own statehood also speak several dialects that differ significantly from each other. Each area uses its own dialect, with a large number of borrowed vocabulary. Thus, in Russia, in Ukraine, dialects with great influence of Romanian and Russian are used in Romania. Roma Western Europe speak dialects with borrowing from German and French. At the periphery of the Gypsy Area Rasselling (modern Finland, Spain, Portugal, Scotland, Wales, Armenia, etc.) they use local languages with inclusions of the Gypsy vocabulary.
It is noteworthy that not only the Gypsies absorb the vocabulary in their language, but also the "aboriginal" peoples borrow some words. For example, Gypsy origin have widespread Russian jargonisms: ski (money), to poke (steal), haw (eat, eat), labet (play on the musical instrument). English words Lollipop (lollipop), PAL (buddy), Chav (Gopnik), Tiny (small, tiny) - similarly. The changes occurred in the cultural environment: in Russia, especially in the twentieth century, the Gypsy ensembles were widespread, which enjoyed greatly popular among all the layers of society. In the southern part of Spain, the Gypsies created a music style flamenco. So where did the gypsies come from why they turned out to be scattered around the world, and why they do not like them everywhere where they have a misfortune to live? The dark skin color and dark hair color unequivocally indicate that the ancestors of Gypsies came to Europe from the south. On the territory of the North Indian state of Rajasthan and now there are several tribes who are considered related to the current gypsies. The largest of them are bandjars; In addition to the bandjarov, the Romara, Lohara, houses and kajara are also among the possible ancestors. .
Figure 2. Bandjar teenager in a festive suit. Rajasthan (North-West India). Photo of the author.
Figure 3. Bandjark girls in a traditional dress (with mandatory elements of clothing - headscarf, bracelets on elbows and wrists, mirrors in clothing, etc.). Source: http://homegrown.co.in/indias-forgotten-populate 6-unique-tribes-you-should-know /
Historians have not yet succeeded in orderned to establish exactly when Gypsies moved to their big journey, but it is assumed that this happened in the interval between VI и Xcenturies of our era. More accurately known route movement. After leaving the North-West India, the wiser tribes at first lived for a long time lived on the territory of modern Iran and Turkey, from there began to move north - to the territory of modern Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece. Later, approximately with XV Century, the Gypsies through the territory of modern Romania began to settle at the beginning of Central Europe (modern Germany, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia), then moved to Scandinavia, to the British Islands, to Spain. At about the same time ( XV – XVI Century) Another Gypsy branch, having passed from the territory of modern Iran and Turkey through Egypt, settled through the countries of North Africa and also reached modern Spain and Portugal. In the end XVII A century Gypsies were on the outskirts of the Russian Empire (modern Baltic States, Crimea, Moldova).
Figure 4. Map of relocation Roma with Xby XVIII Vladimir P.Inchikons: http: //dnaconsultants.com/_blog/dna_consultants_blog/post/gypsy_migrations/
Why did Tsygans starred from theated places and went to a long journey? The accurate response scientists do not yet know, but it is assumed that, most likely, several nomadic Indian tribes at some point began to go beyond the traditional area of the settlement. Currently, in India, about five percent of the population is constantly migrating - as a rule, these are stray artisans, the route of which is more or less permanent. The basis of the nomadic lifestyle of the Gypsy and their Indian ancestors was not "robatic thrust for the change of places", as may be submitted to some readers on the basis of the stories of M. Gorky and films E. Lotanu, and the economic factor: Tabor artisans needed markets for their products, Artists needed a new audience for speeches, the fortune tales needed a change of clientele. In each case, the area of the nomad was relatively small - approximately 300-500 square kilometers. This can explain the fact that nomads needed several centuries to get to Western Europe.
As the worst tribes continued further and further left their historic homeland, they were more and more consolidated. In India, many tribes form a separate Casta - the total number of castes in this country exceeds 3000, the transitions between the castes are difficult or not allowed. Most likely, the ancestors of modern Gypsies from the territory of Industan, the ancestors of modern gypsies belonged to different caustaces (their main classes were blacksmith and pottery, weaving baskets, manufacture and tinning of boilers, street performances, fortune telling, etc.). While they were in the territory of the current Iran and Afghanistan, they did not stand out too much from the indigenous people - were almost the same dark-haired and darkness. In addition, there were a lot of wrathic cattle breeders around, so the lifestyle of Roma did not seem surrounding something special.
As Roma moved further from its historic homeland, their differences in clothes and traditions became increasingly visible in comparison with the local population. Apparently, then various Indian caste tribes began to grow up, forming a new community that we refer to the "Gypsies".
Other changes took place. One of the largest and most powerful states in X - XIV For centuries in Europe and Malaya Asia there was Byzantium, which at that time occupied the territory of modern Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria. Several hundred years of residence in the territory of Christian Byzantium led to the fact that Christianity was accepted, apparently, it happened about XII. – XIV centuries [four] . Byzantine written sources of that time do not distinguish between Roma from other social and ethnic groups. This indirectly indicates that at that time the Tsygan was not perceived as a marginal or criminal group.
The Byzantine Empire was one of the most long-lived empires in history. She existed for more than a thousand years, but by the middle XV The century is completely faded and fell under the pressure of the Turkish Ommans. As the Vizantius, the Tsygans moved again in the path - they began to settle on the lands of the surrounding countries. It was then that the process of marginalization of Roma began.
Europe XV The century lost to many countries of the East in technology and in the standard of living. The era of great maritime travel, which opened Europeans new lands and rich opportunities, just began. To the industrial and bourgeois revolutions that have put Europe on an inaccessible height for other countries were still far away. The Europeans at that time lived poorly, there was not enough food at all, and there were no other people's mouths at all. The negative attitude towards the gypsies as "Extra RTMS" was aggravated by the fact that when the Byzantium crash to Europe, they were transplanted, as it usually happens with social cataclysms, the most mobile, most adventurically-minded groups of Gypsies, among which there were many beggars, small thieves, gadels. Honest workers who received numerous letters about privileges in Byzantium in Byzantia, as apparently, did not hurry to move to new lands, hoping to adapt to the new orders of Osmanov's Turkings. By the time artisans, animal trainers, artists and societies (representatives of typical gypsy occupations) were in Central and Western Europe, they fell under the already established negative stereotype of perception and could not change it.
An additional factor in the marginalization of Gypsies was the workshop and territorial limitations of medieval Europe. The right to engage in the crafts was then transmitted by inheritance - so the son of the shoemaker became a shoemaker, and the son of Kuznez - Kuznets. It was impossible to change the profession; In addition, most of the inhabitants of medieval cities in all their lives have never been outside the city walls and were wary of all strangers. Arrivals who arrived in Central Europe were faced with a hostile-negative attitude from the local population and so that, due to workshop restrictions, they could not engage in crafts, which had long been earned for life (first of all, working with metal).
Beginning with XVI century Economic relations in Europe began to change. Manufactory has occurred, which led to the massive ruin of artisans. In England, the need for pasture meadows for the needs of the textile industry led to the policy of enhancement, during which the peasants were driven from their community lands, and the ever-dried lands were used for sheep grazing. Since the unemployment benefits and other mechanisms for maintaining socially vulnerable segments at that time did not exist, the number of vagrants, small robbers and beggars grew. Against them across Europe, cruel laws were accepted, often assumed the death penalty for the fact of begging [five] . Nomadic, semi-courses, as well as those who tried to settle, but the ruined Tsygan became victims of these laws.
Successing from the persecution of the authorities, Gypsies became more secretive - moved at night, lived in caves, forests and other secluded places. This contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of the gypsies as gentlemen, satanists, vampires and werewolves. At the same time there were rumors about the gypsies-kidnappers of children (allegedly for eating and conducting satanic rites).
The spiral of mutual distrust and rejection continued to spin. Due to the limitations or complete absence of legal opportunities for earnings, forced to somehow find themselves to feed the gypsies, more and more became theft, we wake up and other not very legitimate activities.
Figure 5. Nikolai Bessonov. "Prediction of Fate."
In the conditions of the hostile external environment, Roma (especially Roma from Western European countries) began to culturally "closes in themselves", literally and strictly following the old traditions  . In search of the best share of Roma gradually began to settle through the countries of Northern and Eastern Europe, moved to the countries of the new world, but almost anywhere they did not go to a settled lifestyle and could not integrate into the local society - everywhere they remained alone.
В XX A century many countries have attempted to destroy the traditional of the Gypsy, tie them to a permanent place of residence, give them the opportunity to make money through official employment. In the USSR, this policy was relatively successful - skew about ninety percent of all Roma  .
The collapse of the countries of the Soviet bloc led to the destruction of the lifestyle of the Gypsy of Eastern Europe and the former USSR. Up until the mid-1990s, the Tsygan of the USSR and other Eastern European countries were actively engaged in small underground production, speculation and other similar illegal business. The disappearance of the deficit, the development of a market economy in the countries of the Soviet bloc was deprived of the Roma of the Nish, at the expense of which they succeeded in the second half XX century. The low level of education, the lack of a long-term view on the development of their own business led to the fact that the majority of Gypsies were crushed out of the sector of small trade, thanks to which Tsygans flourished in 1980-1990.
The objacious Roma returned to begging, and began to actively engage in selling drugs, fraud and minor theft. The disappearance of the Iron Curtain in the USSR and the opening of borders in Europe contributed to an increase in the Gypsy migration. For example, Romanian Gypsies in the 2010th. They began to actively move to the countries of Western and Northern Europe, where they are also mainly engaged in the other socially reliable ways of earnings.
So, Roma, coming out about a thousand years ago from India, gradually scattered as artisans in the Middle East and Asia Minor. As the Byzantine Empire is gone, that is, about from the beginning XV century, Gypsy gradually began to settle through the countries of Central, Eastern, North and Western Europe, and starting with XVIII The centuries began to move to the countries of the New World. Faced with the workshop restrictions of feudal Europe, the Roma gradually dropped on a social bottom, universally interrupted by dubious, not completely legitimate ways of earnings.
В XX A century in many countries has been a policy for the coercion of ancient nomadic people to a settled lifestyle. The young generation of Gypsies began to visit schools, secondary special and higher educational institutions; Among the representatives of the eyelids of the illiterate people, engineers, doctors, scientists appeared.
What will happen next? It seems that Roma or again will be marginalized, falling onto a social bottom, or will gradually join the surrounding society, increasing their educational and cultural level, mastering modern professions and adopted in more successful peoples and customs. The path of gradual assimilation is also possible - so, now the Gypsy groups of the British Islands, Transcarpathia and Central Asia are completely or almost completely lost their native language. In those countries where they can gain access to education, Roma will be gradually more and more integrated into the world around the world on decent conditions. In these regions, they, while maintaining identity, will be able to create a new level of culture, rethink the traditions - as southern Koreans or Finns, who have passed the way from a primitive economy for economic prosperity over several decades. XX century. Where it will work out, friction between the gypsies and the indigenous population will decline, and the original bright customs of the ancient nomadic people will be involved in the interest of non-law enforcement officers, and tourists, historians and the general public.
[one] In addition to the Jews and Gypsies, the list was still born with congenital neurological and somatic diseases, homosexuals, mentally retarded, persons with mental illness and many other categories of people - from the point of view of Hitler, they were all defective, and by virtue of this were to be at first all sorts of restrictions, Then - isolation and destruction.
 Most of the modern states, especially European, were formed in XVII – XIX. centuries based on the national identity inhabiting the relevant territory of peoples. In the bulk of modern states, representatives of the title people constitute the overwhelming majority of the population.
[four] Most of the modern Gypsies consider themselves Christians, although the Gypsy version of Christianity differs from all other denominations and flows. At the same time, Gypsies, who lived in the Ottoman Empire and other Muslim states, were actively accepted by Islam.
[five] According to the laws on vagrancy, two percent of the population of England was made.
 It is noteworthy that the attitude towards the Jews and Gypsies in European peoples was very similar. Despite the fact that many Jews were able to find a way to socially integrate the European Society, on the household level they were presented to the same claims as the gypsies: the abduction of babies, satanic rites, etc., just like Roma, the Jews in response closed more Inside their community (they did not communicate with non-Jews, they were doing business only with the units, did not make marriages with non-Jews, etc.), which caused even greater rejection. On the household level, anti-Semitism, as well as the antizigan mood, had widespread - without them terrible German racial laws would not be taken to execute.
 Used both whip and gingerbread methods. Thus, laws were adopted, providing for the criminal prosecution of Gypsy-vagrants (they equated to TUneevians). At the same time, local authorities really made efforts to integrate and assimilating Gypsies - they were employed, they were provided with housing, increased the level of education. In the USSR, the world's first Gypsy theater "Roman", which exists and today.
Unfortunately, the area of theoretical biology engaged in evolutionary theory is initially a class of classroom collision. It is clear: the evolutionary doctrine puts doubt on the religious dogmas, and the religion has thousands of years a test method for the oppressed mass from the struggle for a fair world. It seems that the distribution of a philistine, simplified view of evolutionary theories among the population is connected with this. Therefore, I had to postpone the conversation about the achievements of molecular biology and genetics and make an explanation of the ratios of the existing evolutionary exercises.
For a long time, humanity was under the not subject to the influence of the creatureist paradigm. Creationism (from Lat. Creatio, born. Creationis - creation) - the ideological concept, according to which the main forms of organic world (life), humanity, planet Earth, as well as the world as a whole, are considered as directly created by the Creator or God.
Creationism existed not always. So, in the Australian tribe of Arutta believe that the world exists extremely. In the time immemorial, the semi-vertices were lived, which by witchcraft turned alone objects to others; The question from where these creatures took, Australians do not even ask. They believe that the sun occurred from a woman with a burning head, which climbed into the sky and turned into a fire.
"The concept of" the creation of the world "was in the era of the decomposition of the primitive-communal system. Pottery production contributed to the formation of the idea that the world was molded from clay. In Elefantine, he was told about the ancient Egyptian God Khnume, who molded the world from Nile clay on a pottery circle as potted dishes. "
So, apparently, there was a biblical myth about Adam, whom God crashed out of clay.
The first evolutionary paradigms were formed in ancient elder. So, Anaximen (585 - 525 BC. Er) believed that people had occurred from fish.
EmPedocle (approx. 490 - Ok. 430 BC) believed that the heads without neck, hands without shoulders, eyes without forehead, hair, the internal organs were worn in space in a state of hostility, but in the rust of love joined freaks, centaurs and hermaphrodites; Only the most appropriate forms survived: something similar to the natural selection of Darwin took place ...
"So from the mixing of the elements of endless sleeps creating images of multi-solid and wondrous appears on the species."
Empedocl, however, does not indicate the unidirectional of the evolutionary process. Love and enmity replace each other with cycles, first was the golden age.
Aristotle placed living creatures from the lowest to the highest in the famous "staircase of nature".
Roman Lucretia Car (approx. 99 BC. E. - 55 BC. Er) believed that the butterflies used to be flowers.
The path of all this emerging multiweight of evolutionary thought was closed in the Middle Ages. For many centuries, the domination of the creationist paradigm, which formed the priests of the ancient slave-ownership states of Babylon and Egypt was established in Europe. This paradigm, along with other measures, reliably provided the class domination of the feudalists and began to be questioned only after the bourgeoisie began to establish a new system. Species as much as God created them.
But Already Karl Linney (Swede Carl Linnaeus, Carl Linné, Lat. Carolus Linnaeus, after receiving the nobility in 1761 - Karl Background Linney, Carl Von Linné; May 23, 1707, Roshult - January 10, 1778, Uppsala), author of "Nature Systems "And to this day in the biology of the binary nomenculatura (Latin generic and species name, for example, Homo Sapiens - a reasonable person), by the end of his life believed that new species could arise as a result of crossing. Linnae was taken by a person to the class of mammals, to the detachment of primates, along with monkeys, semoressets and with a number of animals, to primates a relationship that does not have, for example, with volatile mice.
The first holistic evolutionary teaching belongs to Jean Batista Lammark (Fr. Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Lamarck; August 1, 1744 - 18 December 1829). It was set out in the work of the "philosophy of zoology".
Like the "stairs of creatures" Aristotle, Lamarck placed living beings along steps, levels - gradations. The main evolution of Lammark is the "striving for improvement." The results of the exercise or non-execution of the bodies are inherited. The most popular example of Lamarc - with giraffes. Initially, environmental conditions have changed: the ancestors of the giraffes had to pull the neck behind the leaves. Their necks lengthened like muscles during training. This is inherited.
Evolution on the lammark - smooth, as well as in Darwin, without sharp jumps. In Soviet times, the views close to Lamarkistsky, tried to drag into the biology of Opponent Vavilov, Trofim Lysenko, under the "Soviet Creative Darwinism" label than a considerable harm to science.
However, the latest data from the field of epigenetic studies, which show that the nature of the expression (the implementation of information encoded in the nucleic acids in protein structures) of genes may vary under the influence of external factors (the DNA structure itself is not affected), and these changes may be inherited ; And also - just the fact that external factors can cause mutations, open the path of Nealamarkets. There is no doubt that Lamarck himself believed the origin of a man from the monkey, although he was forced to mask his views.
Accordably the path of evolutionary teaching was opened by Charles Robert Darwin (English Charles Robert Darwin; February 12, 1809 - April 19, 1882). During the round-the-world travel on the Beagle ship (1831 - 1836), the young Darwin saw the evolution in space.
A huge number of animals in different parts of the globe, and the main thing - the Galapagos Islands: the shells of the land skulls, varying in shape, pointing to the island of origin - all this contributed to the insight.
The beaks of Galapagos reels were a key point for the birth of Darwin ideas about the variability of time species.
However, Darwin was no rushing. He continued to collect facts. The proof was based on selection materials, the success in which England was always famous for the success. A big role for the teachings of Darwin, the theory of Malthus was provided to his ideas about the struggle for existence, according to which the uncontrolled growth of population should lead to hunger on Earth.
The evolutionary teaching of Darwin is a logical product of the development of capitalist society. It is noteworthy that simultaneously with Darwin to the same conclusions, a 35-year-old Alfred Wallace came to the same conclusions. At the beginning of the summer of 1858, Darwin came a package from the Malay Islands from Wallace, who asked Darwin to consider him, Wallace, the theory of natural selection. Before Darwin, I did not even get up question: hide the work of Wallace, who did not know anything about Darwin's developments, or publish his own manuscript forward. Darwin could not enter, not in Gentelmenna. He was a man of honor. His friends helped by the Council of Darwin: Geolog Charles Lyle and Botanist Joseph Gucker. They recommended both work as soon as possible to Lynneevskoe society both work - a short extraction from the Book of Darwin and Sketch of Wallace. "Dear Sir," they wrote the secretary of the Company. - The accompanying works relate to the issue of formation of varieties and present the results of research of two tireless naturalists - Mr. Charles Darwin and Mr. Alfred Wallace. " Darwin did not tire to inform the public that Wallace's work is better, but and Wallace did not lag behind Darwin, he said that the work of Darwin ... However, the symbol of evolutionary teaching, as we know, the story ordered to make Charles Darwin.
What is characterized by the Teaching of Charles Darwin? It must be denoted immediately to understand the attitude towards the classical Darwinism of other evolutionary teachings. Darwin allocated 2 main types of variability: defined (group) и indefinite (individual) . With certain variability, all the offspring of the body varies in a similar way under the influence of environmental factors. Now this variability is called Modifications th or Neggreatment . For example, a dwarf growth due to lack of food. This type of variability is not inherited.
Indefinite variability is now called hereditary or mutational . The fact of evolution is the last.
Combinative (When crossing), Darwin's variability did not assign a decisive role in evolution. Other factors of evolution in Darwin - struggle for existence и natural selection (From English. Selection - can be translated as "natural selection"). Evolution in Darwin is random. Small random changes serve material for natural selection. If Artificial selection The selector acts as a person, and it picks up the qualities that are beneficial to himself, then with the natural selection of the selector - nature: persistent and produce offspring of individuals with qualities useful for survival. Separately mention unconscious selection . A person does not put the goal, he, for example, simply does not send good nurses on meat, and the egg production of chickens increases. Evolution in Darwin is a slow progressive process, without sharp jumps. The number gradually goes into a new quality. The evolution of Darwin does not have a finite definite goal. Views are mainly monophiletic origin, and the evolutionary process develops according to the principle of divergence: species are disintegrating into childbirth, childbirth - for families, families - on squads, detachments - to classes, etc., like a tree. Microevolution (formation of new species) and Macroevolution (Formation of large taxa, such as classes) in Darwin the essence of one process.
MicroEvolution inside the species and Darwinian natural selection we can observe in real time. So, the usual butterfly butterflies Berezovy (Bistular Betularia) are a classic example. The melanistical form Carbonaria first attracted attention as a rare mutant in 1848 in Manchester. In the period between 1848 and 1898. The frequency of this form in industrial areas has increased rapidly; It has become the usual form, while a typical grayish form has become rare. The frequency of the black color allele is estimated to increase from 1 to 99% for 50 generations from 1848 to 1898. The reason is the appearance of soot and soot on the trunks of Birch, due to the growth of the industry, which made a form with light wings vulnerable to birds and gave The advantage of form with dark wings. This phenomenon is called industrial melanism.
Darwin's theory quickly won popularity, but also quickly, under the pressure of criticism, she lost it. At the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX century, very few biologists have already shared the concept of natural selection, however, the idea of the evolution of the organic world with the advent of Darwin's teachings in their environment was not questioned more than ever. This is the main merit of Darwin: he opened the way for evolutionary theory and will cause hatred from religious apologists until the end of the era of class society.
In the 20s of the XX century, the synthetic theory of evolution (STE) is born, which is the synthesis of darvinism and population genetics and is the dominant paradigm in modern biology. There is a rehabilitation of darwinism. Article S. S. Chetverikova "On some moments of the evolutionary process from the point of view of modern genetics" (1926), in fact, became the core of the future synthetic theory of evolution and the basis for the further synthesis of darwinism and genetics. In this article, Chetverikov showed compatibility of the principles of genetics with the theory of natural selection and laid the foundations of evolutionary genetics. The main evolutionary publication S. S. Chetverikova was translated into English in the laboratory of J. Holdane, but never was published abroad. In the works of J. Holdane, N. V. Timofeyev-Resovsky and F. G. Blyuan idea, expressed by S. S. Chetverikov, spread to the West, where R. Fisher was expressed almost at the same time about the evolution of dominance. In English-language literature among the creators of Sta, the names of F. Bestjan, J. Huxley, E. Mayra, B. Rensha, J. Stebbins. This, of course, is not a complete list. Only from Russian scientists, at least, would be called I. I. Schmalgausen, N. V. Timofeyev-Resovsky, G. F. Gauz, N. P. Dubinina, A. L. Takhtajyan. From the British scientists, the role of J. B. S. Haldian Jr., D. Lek, K. Woddington, De Bira. German historians among the active creators of Sta called the names of E. Baura, V. Zimmerman, V. Ludwig, Heberer and others.
The most vivid difference between Sta from classic Darwinism: the main unit of evolution in it is no longer a separate organism, but the population, i.e., the set of organisms of one species that exist in a certain territory or water area in the conditions of free pamctions, i.e. gene exchanges. Reproductive insulation, for example, geographical (restriction of pamctions due to the appearance of geographical obstacles, for example, straits or mountain arrays, which interferes with free crossing), or genetic-etological (the differences in behavior, for example, in partner interaction signals, interfere with crossing), or any The other leads to the speciation. Any population has a certain set of mutations, few of which are useful, but most are harmful. Therefore, figuratively expressing, the population has many support points in the form of a combination of various alleles of genes, which increases its stability, provides the ability to react to changes in environmental conditions.
I. I. Schmalgausen introduced the concepts of stabilizing and driving selection. With constant environmental conditions, all deviations from the norm are eliminated, it is a stabilizing selection, but it is worth the conditions for the medium to change, the driving selection is turned on, and mutant alleles of genes are obtained.
I will not stop at Sta in detail, in order not to overload an article that has thought as a popular one. Mathematical models STE are complex and are, in fact, justifications explaining the existing contradictions. I note only that the basis of STE, as in classical Darvinism - the concept of thicogenesis - evolution based on accidents. Microevolution and macroevolution The same is the same, only the scale differ. Evolution has no ultimate goal, not anywhere. Preference is given to divergence and monophiletic origin of species. Evolution, according to STE, there is a slow progressive process, without revolutionary jumps.
Sometimes the objections of the averages against Darwinian teachings are circling around real contradictions. The issue of transitional form between monkey and man, of course, cannot cause anything other than bewilderment and regret about the illiteracy of the population.
A similar thing is the question of transitional forms between, for example, reptiles and birds ... In fact: well, jumped from the branch to the thread of the ancestor, even if not the bird, but flying proteins, well, a random mutation arose: a small shell of the skin. What could she have evolutionary meaning? Could such a folding of the skin play a crucial role in survival, make jumps more efficient, if, of course, a large fold with aerodynamic characteristics immediately occurred? Card house of Darwinian slow progressive process, by small random changes, begins to stagger, and it seems, it is about to collapse ... Of course, you can approach the problem of philosophically: a person never flew, the brain does not understand the brilliant simplicity of aspiration to flight at the level of intuition, and the principle "Calculate crawling cannot fly" also spreads to the ease of evolutionist thought. Nevertheless, the perfection of the aerodynamic structure of the bird fascinates, like the birds themselves ... I don't know how you, and I have dreamed of how to fly out on the window of the upper floor, flying over the trees ...
What to say, the issue of macroevolution is a sick question in biology, and as long as it is not closed, you can hardly expect the cessation of reaction chatter in this area. Unfortunately, the educated people often treasure themselves self-deception, allegedly understood everything in Darwin, ignoring cognitive dissonance. So, the emergence of the theory of nomogenesis - evolution based on the patterns of Lev Semenovich Berg (2 (15) March 1876-24 December 1950) can hardly be assumed by random.
Man encyclopedic knowledge, geographer, geologist, paleontologist, soil scientist, lymnologist, ichthyologist, ethnographer, Berg outlined his views on evolution in the book "Nomogenesis, or Evolution based on regularities" (Petrograd, 1922), in which Darwin's teachings completely opposed his teachings. The evolutionary process on Berg, in contrast to Darwin, is not accidental, but natural. The origin of the species of polyfeitically - from many thousands of source forms. In the future, evolution developed mainly convergently. As in the case of fish aclaus, reptile ichthyosaurus and mammal dolphin: In the aquatic environment, they acquired the same streamlined shape with fins, despite the fact that the ancestors of some - four-legged, others - originally aquatic animals. Evolution on Berg is not a continuous appearance of new signs, like Darwin, but largely - deploying already existing deposits, like a plant from the kidney inside the seed, in which leaves, stalk and spine are already indicated. Evolution occurs sharply, jumps (s), affecting both huge masses of individuals in vast territories, based on the Mutations of De Fries. Types are sharply excluded from each other, and no transitional forms exist. Natural selection and struggle for existence are not progress factors, they protect the norm.
In the work "The Law of Homologic Rows in hereditary variability", set forth in the form of a report on the III All-Russian Selection Congress in Saratov on June 4, 1920, the concept of "homologous rows in hereditary variability" was introduced by the like-minded man. The law of Vavilova is formulated: "Genetically similar types and childbirth are characterized by similar series of hereditary variability with such a correctness that, knowing a number of forms within one species, one can foresee the finding of parallel forms in other types and childbirth." The law of homologous series, as well as the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleev in chemistry, allows, on the basis of knowledge of the general patterns of variability, to predict existence in nature, not known for previously forms with valuable signs for selection. So, only multi-semen fruits of sugar beet were known: the seeds were growing in the hop, the tank, and during germination, the unnecessary seedlings had to be deleted manually. However, instances with single-stage fruits were detected in wild-growing beets. Based on the knowledge of the law of Vavilov, the researchers took the search for single-heated mutants and sugar beets; Based on the mutants detected, modern varieties of this culture were obtained. Nikolay Vavilov also belongs to the statement that "the selection is an evolution sent by the will of man."
The opening of horizontal transfer of genes (see my previous article) suggests the possibility of spreading useful mutations through viruses among taxonomically distant groups. Why, for example, to prevent that the saber-toothed animals among various detachments and even infraresions of mammals appeared and extinct conjugately, so it is not by chance. Also in favor of the theory of Berg indicates the fact of the limitedness of possible evolutionary directions. Sometimes there are simply no appropriate enzyme pathways, which makes, for example, an impossible occurrence in the process of the evolution of mammals with blue wool.
A separate position should be noted, the evolutionary ideas of I. A. Efremova occupy. This researcher recognizes the progressive role of natural selection, but after Berg, preference gives convergence. According to Efremov, the higher the energy level of homeostasis (maintaining the constancy of the inner medium) in the body, the already the range of possible evolutionary directions. Thus, the evolution on Efremov is similar to the twisting spiral and wears a pronounced finalistic character: implies the final highest goal - man. Efremov goes further and comes to the conclusion about the patterns of human form for other planets.
"There is no imperative reasonable life in the lower forms like mold, the more - the thinking ocean can not be" .
Nevertheless, Efremov was familiar with the nomogenesis of Berg and talk about convergence, or by random coincidence, as in the case of Darwin and Wallace, in this case it is not necessary.
Unfortunately, Finalism There is a loophole to drag theistic views into an evolutionary theory than and enjoys V. I. Nazarov . If evolution has a goal, then the Creator, the Demon Creationism - is there like here ...
It is impossible not to stay on the concept AutoVolutions Citogenetic Lima de Faria (1991). Briefly speaking, the evolution on Lima de Faria is the same patterns that force the water to stick in the form of beautiful snowflakes. And Lima de Faria leads in his book "Evolution without selection" Photos of a sheet-shaped pure bismuth in native form and a leaf of the plant, ice crystals and young shoots of fern ... Galaxies are compared with shellfish sinks ... this is a modern form of nomogenesis. Self-organization of matter is studied Synergetic .
There were other attempts to answer the question of how Macroevolution was realized. For example, the theory of "occurring freaks" (Hopeful Monsters) of Goldsmidt (Richard Baruch-Benedikt Goldschmidt; April 12, 1878 - 24 April 1958).
The idea is simple. Macroevolution races are implemented through the appearance of freaks, sharply abnormal forms like Siamese twins that have no chances of survival in most cases. But sometimes the freaks are born around ... So it could arise the ugly, disproportionately the big fold of the skin in proteins-flying, however, the question of how dinosaurs became birds still remains foggy ...
Theory Sybiogenesis (The term nominated for the first time Meriazhkovsky in 1905) is practically no doubt of biologists. Cell organoids such as chloroplasts or Mitochondria Once there were symbilation bacteria, i.e. existed on mutually beneficial fundamentals (such a form of symbiosis is called Mutualism ) Inside the ancestra's eukarytic cell, and subsequently lost independence, became its elements. There is serious evidence: mitochondria and Platids Have two completely closed membranes. At the same time, the external one is similar to the membranes of vacuoles, internal - bacteria. These organoid division multiplies (and sometimes divided independently of cell division), DE NOVO is never synthesized. Own genetic material - ring DNA - like bacteria; have its own protein synthesis device - Ribosomes , and others. Evidence. Sybiogenesis is for us at least an example of one of the possible ways of mysterious macroevolution, and this is a non-wingo path.
Yes, hereditary information can be transmitted not only through nucleic acids, but also through proteins, for example, Prions .
An overview of evolutionary theories can be continued for a very long time. Interested can familiarize themselves, for example, with the book V. I. Nazarov "Evolution not by Darwin", regarding, of course, is critical to what written there. However, I'm on this review and complete.
But let's return to the beginning of the article. Born in biology, modern evolutionism soon covered all other natural sciences, became global. But, alas, the sphere of evolutionary theories continues to remain a class struggle. Darwin's theory, logical for the world of capitalist competition, unfortunately, is often justified by the market struggle for the existence, which is presented as a good and source of progress. Of course, Darwin was the son of his time, he understood the reality as a person of his formation, but never in his task was not the birth of freaks like Social Darwinism, strongly condemned by biologists of the whole world, Social Darwinism, which implies natural selection in human society. So racists argued their antichel looks, they say skin color because Darwin adaptation? On the contrary, in human society, the role of natural selection is minimized, and the level Mutagesis In connection with the new technologies (for example, atomic reactors) increases, which requires the speedy development of methods of gene therapy. Played on the hand of modern liberals Trofim Lysenko: their full crocodile tears screaming about what Academician Vavilov was repressed, they still do not cease. The question remains on the feasibility of consideration of the NaedaVin theories among schoolchildren. Our education system is designed so that the latter has no opportunities for deep immersion into the world of evolutionary theories, and Darwin in the mass consciousness is a symbol of evolutionary teaching; Any criticism of Darwin can be perceived incorrectly, as an argument in favor of chatter from yellow newspapers, they say, Darwin denied, and the person did not happen from the monkey.
Efremov's dreams are also lost and the dreams of Efremova meet with beauty from other planets, and the puzzles of prehistoric epochs, such as the Cambrian Explosion, and the possibility of a person as the king of nature to send evolution in this way to save the biosphere from every pain ... Someday we We understand what evolution is finally. Someday we will see the evolution on other planets, and the revolution will happen in our knowledge on this issue, because it will appear with what to compare! Someday…
TULIN DI, Candidate of Biological Sciences
1. Shakhovich M. I. Myths on the creation of the world, M.: Knowledge, 1968
2. Charles Darwin. Origin of species by natural selection or preservation of conducive breeds in the struggle for life, M.: Education, 1987
3. Efremov I. A. Sosmos and Paleontology, M.: Knowledge, 1972
4. Nazarov V. I. Evolution not in Darwin, M.: LKI, 2007
Gypsy: Where did they come from where their homeland? History of the Gypsy Nor
Gypsies is a whole ethnic group that has a common origin and language. To date, Roma live across the planet, except Antarctica. Nobody knows the true number of Gypsies in the world, because they do not participate in the population census, independent accounting also do not lead. And some countries do not know whether there are at all roma in their territory, because many of them still lead a nomadic lifestyle.
Where do they come from
A very interesting question - where the Gypsies came from. Not one study was conducted on this topic, and today a single point of view has been formed - Roma are immigrants from India.
In fact, this group of peoples was formed at the end of the I millennium of our era. In those days, Muslim culture was dominated in India. Then the Gypsies fell into front Asia and lingered there until the Byzantium reign.
Spread the world
Where did Tsygano come from? If even they are the ancestors of the Hindus, how did they spread all over the world? It is believed that in the period from the XIII to the 15th century, Roma were actively spread throughout Europe. Until the XV century, they were perceived well benevolently. But then began to perceive as vagrants, evicted outside states, that is, the people were outlawed. By the XVIII century, some countries have become more tolerant to treat the romes. And from the same time a division appeared on sedentary and nomadic gypsies.
How did Roma come to Russia?
It is believed that the Gypsies hit the territory of Russia in two ways:
- through the Balkans, and it was about the XV-XVI centuries;
- Through Germany and Poland in the XVI-XVII centuries.
Up until the October Revolution, Roma was engaged in theft and horses exchange, and women were guessing. Nomads also guess and asked alms, but some were engaged in a blacksmith.
The same gypsies, which settled in Moscow and St. Petersburg, were choring ensembles.
After the revolution, Roma tried to teach to settle down and work. And in 1931, the Gypsy Theater "Roman" was even opened in the capital. During World War II, many sedentary roma went to war.
In 1956 there was a second attempt to make the entire Gypsy people settled, they were given the right to work and education. But not many wanted to live, like everyone else, not all families took advantage of the opportunity to train their children for free.
In the last century, many countries have made multiple attempts to improve the legal status of the Roma, committees and institutions were created. Festivals were held, even in the country, from where the Gypsies came from. For example, the International Gypsy Festival in Chandigahre, 1976.
However, these events began to be held only after World War II. During military conflict, many groups of Roma throughout Europe were almost completely destroyed by the fire of the Holocaust. And from the 70s of the last century, the Gypsy national movement began. And it doesn't matter that the people have no own state, Roma - supporters of the fact that they are an exneriterial nation, but with richest culture and traditions.
Since the 90s, quite professional representatives of this ethnic group appear: journalists, politicians, education figures. The rules for standardization of the language are formed, which allow them to communicate with them even at the international level.
According to the generally accepted international classification, Gypsies are carriers of one of the variants of the medieval Indoary dialect - Shaurana Apabharansh.
In different countries, Roma formed their tongue in close contact with the language of the country where they lived. Therefore, different groups speech can differ radically from the language that use on another continent. And some Roma generally lost their tongue and completely switched to the one who enjoyed in the country where they live. That is, regardless of where Roma came from, namely, from India, each ethnic group demonstrates the different degree of preservation of the native language. To date, the simplest classification is represented by four groups:
- Balkan group. This is a dialect, which is used by Gypsies living in Europe, in particular, in the historical part of the settlement: Kosovo, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and a number of other countries.
- Central group. The language in which they use in the territory of Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, in Moravia and in the territory of Karpat.
- Nasha group. This dialect is the most common and studied, as the world is most of all the carriers of this gypsy language. Initially, the language was formed in Romania.
- Northern band. The conditionally group is still divided into two subgroups. The first is a dialect of Gypsy Finland and some Western European countries. The second is the language that rivers in the northern part of Russia, the Baltic States and in Poland.
An interesting fact is that not only Roma borrowed words from other languages. In modern Russian, there are many examples when Gypsy words firmly entered our speech. For example, the word "LAVE" in the Gypsy language means money, and "haw" means to eat, eat, "poke" - steal. The word "dude" means "his boyfriend", and "Labout" translates how to play a musical instrument.
Who did Tsygans occurred from? From the Hindus, but their genetic and cultural heritage succumbed to the influence of the culture of those countries where they settled, which is quite difficult to draw a generalized portrait. Although some of the characteristic differences of this big ethnic group can still be allocated.
The group of related ties forms the genus, which is headed by a single leader - "Baro", that is, the king, as the modern media treats. This person can represent his genus even at the international level, can consult elders.
The family plays a dominant role in all respects. For marriages with not gypsies, the attitude of disapproval. Even if young from different kinds, then such marriage is also not very good attitude. Usually the pair is connected for life, but in extreme cases is allowed to divorce.
If you analyze the history of the Gypsy people, then they always have a kind of internal court "Chris", consisting of the male assembly. This court exists to date. The competence of the Assembly includes the decision of marital affairs, material and moral. The court has the right to impose a fine and even exclude from the community.
To date, the Gypsies are very reverent about their own children. If the family is not born in the family, the son is not born, the family is solved for the adoption of the boy. In this case, it will not be principled, it will be whiteobrym or in freckles. It is believed that precisely against the background of this tradition and was born a legend that the Gypsies steal children.
At the continuation of many centuries, there were many attempts to put their own religion to the gypsies in places where they lived but in fact most of the Romov became adherents of Christianity or Islam, their own, practically pagan religion of great influence on the lifestyle of these people did not have, as, however, and others Religious cults.
Amazingly many Roma quickly perceived Christianity, many Roma living in Europe adhere to Catholicism and celebrate all holidays.
Tools for existence, life
As in the former times, Roma prefer freedom and even if they agree to work, then only with the minimum contract term. In some countries, they are hired for seasonal work on the collection of vegetables and fruits, in other places traded, are still guessing and steal. Some Roma are entertaining the public, one of the most striking examples is Charlie Chaplin. In Romania and Hungary until today there are Gypsy choirs.
Traditionally, Romom has a love for stewed dishes and soups. That is, the kitchen consists of dishes that can be made in a boiler or in a pot on a fire. In Europe, Roma, even settled, prefer very spicy and sharp dishes.
Children are rare enough to go to school, and even give, they end up in the extreme case class 3, that is, if you know how to write and read, it is no longer necessary, it is better to help parents.
And still, as it was before, where the Motherland of Gypsies, women wear two skirts and apron. After all, the lower part of the gypsy is "unclean."
Despite the predensive attitude towards the gypsies, many representatives of this ethnic group were fully adapted in the modern world, lead a traditional lifestyle for European and other countries, learn at institutions, master professions and live in ordinary houses, women do not wear two skirts and disagreements are solved in ordinary Court.
Gypsies are able to surprise and affect. This people are known for the whole world, but many concepts do not have, where he appeared on our light. Meanwhile, it is Rygane who can boast of incredible culture and customs.
Where live (territory)
Without exaggeration, the Gypsy people settled throughout the planet. Most of them live in the United States of America, and mostly Roma settled in Europe. They constitute a significant part of the population of different countries, forming communities and unions.
It is believed that Roma partially occurred from the inhabitants of India, while there is a version in which a row of Roma occurred from the people of Egypt. The Egyptians were called the British and Spaniards: Eng. Gypsies (from Egyptians - Egyptians), and isp. Gitanos (from Egiptanos - Egyptians). Thus, different peoples of Roma are referred to in different ways. You can highlight 3 main versions of the origin of the name:
- The origin associated with the immigrants from Egypt;
- The origin of the Byzantine word Ambanos (i.e., "gadellers, magicians");
- Origin from different peoples having predominantly dark skin color.
The main version of the origin of the Gypsy claims that they are descendants of residents of India. In the early history of the people, which began in the 6th century of our era, there is a resettlement of the small group of Indians who were presented with the Padishah Persian King. Further, in many respects, historians and gypsy are disagreeable - it is unknown that it was from 6 and 15th centuries. Perhaps, part of the Gypsy went to Palestine, the other proceeded to Egypt. It has been established that Tsygans came to Europe through Byzantium. The rooting of the Gypsy population in Europe contributed to the loyal attitude of the authorities. Gypsy themselves can be called eternal sovereign, because they always left the burdens of the territory forced, for example, in the destruction of the Byzantine Empire.
Crises in medieval Europe gave rise to a mass of contradictions in society, including in relation to the stray peoples. All this made the gypsy people of that time to thieves and even cruel. Mass persecutions, bloody violes, the branding of children and women led to the criminalization of Roma. Because of the life of the life of Roma, they were forced to hide in the forests, live in caves, which made rumors about them only more terrible. Often, People's Moloss in Europe read that Gypsies are cannibals and vampires. Gypsy was accused of kidnapping children, concoction, worship evil spirits. They were attributed to witchcraft and communication with dark forces. The persecutions managed to avoid only those who went to serve in the army or became a service station. However, in this way, the Roma was saved rather not, and families who promised to leave alone. When Europe began to leave the protracted crisis, there was a need for a new work force. The industrial revolution demanded more and more labor resources, so massive persecution of the Gypsies stopped. Thanks to this gypsy, they began to develop trade, handled by handicrafts, turned out to be engaged in agriculture (mainly in grazing) and became famous as dancers. In Eastern Europe, Roma had to be influenced by Ottomans. If the Hungarian king of Sigismund was loyal to the people and freed him from taxes, then Mehmet II, on the contrary, sought to establish taxes as much as possible as possible, making an exception only for gunsmiths and serfs. However, in general, the Ottomans were not hostile to the gypsies, while the Eastern European peoples began to consider them to be the henchmen of the Turks. In the imperial Russia, Roma received the opportunity to become saddled and thanks to the sale of talents used respect for nobility. Russian Gypsies walked with wonderful dancers and musicians, many became merchants. In the Soviet Union, Roma tried to introduce to the emergence of a new culture, making literature in the Soviet language and attracting children to school training.
Life in different countries
The story of modern Roma has a serious influence. As can be seen, in different parts of the planet they had to worry about great difficulties. In Russia, a significant part of the Gypsy is illiterate, which is explained by the Civil War. Many Gypsies feared to give their children to school training and even limited communication with other children. This was the main reason for the magnitude illiteracy among the Gypsy population. In Israel, a small community of Gypsy was formed, which confesses Islam. Some of the community representatives now live in the Gaza Strip. At the same time, many remain illiterate, but earn, arranging theatrical scenes. However, they have a rather high fertility, although the growth of hereditary diseases is great. In the US and Canada, there are mainly people from the USSR and the former socialist countries. It should be noted a high level of assimilation: many American and Canadian gypsies feel perfectly in modern society and live in the same way as other Canadians and Americans. In Turkey, Gypsies live by communities. Many make music, dancing, various crafts, selling clothes, products and colors. Most of the formation does not have, at best, the level of education is limited to average. In Latin America, Roma got from Spain and Portugal. These related groups (feces and came) are mainly engaged in the automotive sphere. Many are trying to sell cars.
Gypsy language (Indoary group of languages) is extremely difficult and actively studied by such an area of scientific research language as Nizhgan. Interestingly, part of the Gypsy lexicon managed to penetrate Russian. Words like "hawk", "lab", "lave", "poke" are regularly used by modern youth. Americans and the British gypsy words also firmly entered the lexicon. The evidence of this is the word "fellow" meaning "brother". There is a great influence of the Gypsy language and in Spanish.
Gypsy culture includes many amazing phenomena. The most famous of them are considered:
- Belly dance.
- Gypsy wedding.
- Funeral rite.
Gypsies borrowed their dances from different nations. The unique manner of the people is trembling shoulders. However, the famous gypsy belly dance is unique with his manner performance, although the origins take from Turkey and North Africa. In Russia, the Gypsy people became famous for the dance "Gypsy". It is distinguished by the execution of lashes by men. Also a characteristic feature of the "gypsy" is a shiver of shoulders and wave-like breasts. Music received the greatest distribution in Italy, Spain and Portugal. Many European gypsies became famous virtuosos, which are not only in European countries, but also around the world. The most popular Tsygan tool is a violin. Gypsy folklore may be the richest in the world. It was in him that famous bikes, telling amazing stories. Gypsies are the authors of many horror stories, in which there are talks, dead men, gibbles, vampires and houses. Most songs and literary works are dedicated to love, life situations, fairy tales and stories about anecdical cases. Gypsies managed to be glorified and as brilliant Flamenco dancers, and their cultural influence on Russian authors is difficult to overestimate, because precisely thanks to this people, Gypsy Romance and Russian chanson appeared. Gypsies also allowed to develop jazz manushu. A special contribution of Roma was brought to the theater and Circus: they came up with horses to dance, arrange spectacular views with focus, songs and dancing.
Much attention to Roma is given to children, motherhood, the process of growing up and family. The child is formed as a person. Gypsies believe that it is impossible to compare children with each other. Traditions and customs are veiled so that every child has a family, so orphans and homeless children always seek to shelter. The children are important to encourage, treat sweets, give them gifts. Special relation to Gypsy to a woman. It is believed that she will be a personality only when children are like. Gypsies relate to motherhood as a great achievement, along with professional or social. Achievements of children also add the honor, which makes it meaning in society. If a woman has several children and all of them achieved success, it makes it very authoritative in any matter. Pregnant women always had close care. If in the process of the coat of the device, the girl had to give birth, Tabor stayed for 40 days. All this time, other women were taught behind the mother, and men should have been guarded. Roma is considered an important vital process. With age, a person becomes wiser, so the senior opinion is authoritative. Older people enjoy special authority, and to disobey them with a young man indecent and even shamefully. In the dispute, every Gypsy seeks to refer to the opinion or words of the most senior member of his community. Finally, the family is essential in the life of each gypsy. Her interests are more important than personal, loyalty to the spouse "spouse" is more important than any temptation. There are separate groups of gypsies in which the husband and wife can part, but in this case the husband must necessarily provide a spouse. Adults are obliged to contain parents, strive to help them all. If children lived in prosperity, then they must provide the same level and their parents. In the traditions of Gypsies, a family hierarchy has been preserved. The more respected family is, the greater the children will be able to achieve. Therefore, Gypsies pay great attention to her authority, in every way trying to increase the "rating" to become a dynasty as a result. It is possible to achieve this level only by professional or social merits.
The wedding is not only a sacral ritual, but also intended to increase the status of a man and a woman. It is at weddings that are acquainted with the influential people and representatives of the dynasties. The main wedding entertainment remains dancing, gossip, feast. Last years, Gypsies seek to shoot a wedding on the camcorder to boast the celebration. Gypsies still can make children still at a young age, although there are communities in which the wovenness is entirely given to the newlyweds.
In the afterlife of person, a person escapes with all the property that belonged to him. First of all, you need icon, carpet, bed linen. In the process of the crate of the coffin, friends or acquaintances are carried. After committing funeral, relatives should not cut her hair and chanting the beard 40 days. Mourning lasts a whole year, which prescribes to abandon the entertainment activities, drinking alcohol and conducting idle life. After 40 days, a memorial day comes: relatives are covered on the table, invite guests and remember the deceased.
The main feature of the Gypsy cuisine is the preparation of dishes on fire. A casual dish is considered to be chowing from lamb or beef. The lamb is considered predominantly a festive view of meat. A bird comes to replace, a wild spittle is a wilderness. Gypsies knew how to hunt, so the hare, boar and even bear were mined. Sometimes they had to eat hero. There were never special ways of cooking meat dishes: the beast was simply roasted on a spit. Purchase meat was taken to black. Smear Gypsies could fry him into the oven. From a long time, Tsygan has learned to make sausages - for this they wrapped the chopped meat in the intestine of the cow. In order for the food to always be, nomads were harvested by Solonin, falling asleep slices of meat salt and pouring it with water. A popular meat dish is Harba. This is a rather fatty product, which is a mixture of liver and pork bale. Harba is preparing on the blood of an animal, after which the liquid is drained, onion, garlic and spices are added to meat. Vegetables Gypsies are constantly in cheese, fried or boiled form. From vegetables make a chowder, which are poured souse.
Seduced Rygane love is a flour. Popular filling for pies is an egg and cabbage. Eating gypsies and well acquaintances to us Kashi: Perlovka, buckwheat, swallow. The scrambled eggs in Gypsy cuisine occupies a special place. It adds vegetables, garlic, pork fat. Milk is considered the most respected drink that must be pair.
The main dwelling of gypsy nomads is a tent or tent. The design of such a dwelling is designed for a strong wind load. As a support, 8 poles are used. Top tensioned thick cloth. For Afghan gypsies, it is characterized by unevenly tension of the canvas, and Turkish use barrel-shaped structures. The view of the semi-bodies was formed under the influence of the standard wagon used by the Tabor. Moldovan Gypsies make low tents in which it is impossible to stand in full growth. The sleeping place was built depending on the area of residence. In the warm regions could sleep on the flooring, and in the cold it was necessary to make beds so as not to freeze from the cold earth. Gypsies always sought to stop near the rivers and lakes. Selected area closer to the forest to have a natural shelter from the wind. The classic gypsy tent even has a "door", which is a curtain. Such tents are called Katunov. Tsygans, who are settled for a settled lifestyle, built a brick house. Such buildings were called bricks, and clay was used for fastening, which was mined in the forest. True sideways preferred to settle in dugouts. There were cavities around the beds that were removed from bloodsowing insects. The Caucasian gypsies tents were put in such a way that they were close to the ground. However, the Gypsies themselves believe that the tent should be high. The higher its top, the dwelling is considered more beautiful. Wooden poles, which relieves the cloth, the gypsies are carefully polished. They are considered to be a subject of pride, and for real luxury takes the core shiny in the light. Seduced gypsies besides earthlings use caves (for example, in Sacramento). Balkan Roma build shacks, and the most progressive residents of the rural areas of Romania build houses from bricks. At the same time, food is preparing usually outdoors using a globitate focus that gives food a pleasant taste.
All national gypsy costumes are arranged so as to hide hips and knees. A classic female suit includes skirt and blouse. The blouses usually have a deep cutout and there is no collar. Sleeves are diverse on the style. Skirt Long can be until the floor, although they are encountered and up to ankle. The obligatory element is the Oracle. If the classic (Calderarian) option is characterized by brightness, then the Finnish gypsies are usually dark or neutral. Adult women wear a long and wide apron, the heads are tied on their head. Men put on hats. A classic male suit is still a combination of shirt, wide trousers and vest. This is such a fashion preserved from Romanian gypsies. For gypsy dancing use monisto. It is worn to underline the televitations. An interesting difference between the English Gypsy women is wearing a racification with a hood. As a headdress, they use a hat or sharp. Sometimes the cloak is replaced with a shawl, which is thrown on the shoulders and they are told on the chest cross-cross. Separately formed the fashion of the fortune-tellers, told on the head of the shawl and dressing in the rags. Gypsy girl clothes decorate patterns depicting flowers or fancy ornament. Men choose high and dense boots from shoes. Women go in sandals, still remains the tradition of walking on the ground Bosoy, which has been preserved since the resettlement times from India. Gypsy dresses were trying to take care, so when the hem was worn out, they neatly cut it and squeezed strips from old trimming fabrics. According to the right Roma takes the title of one of the most amazing numerous peoples on our planet. Even despite the fact that many of them cannot boast the ability to read and write, their culture has had a huge impact on the whole world. Gypsy fashion imites the famous fashion designers, many young people unconsciously adopt the culture of fun and pastime in Gypsies, the popular in the days of divination and magical rituals are taken from this people. They invisibly affect people and still retain the long-standing traditions.
Estimate the culture of Gypsies will fully help the video devoted to the most bright phenomenon in the cultural life of the people. It was the dance Gypsies became famous for the whole world. Now the troupes are touring around the world, giving fascinating ideas. One of these ideas is demonstrated in the next video.