The Mediterranean Sea is located in the middle between the three continents: African, Asian and European. In the north there is a merger with the marble sea, and through the bosphorus it is connected to black. The Suez Channel connects with the Red Sea. The deepest central wpadin at the bottom reaches more than 5 km.
Mediterranean Sea: description, photo, video
The Mediterranean Sea is considered the largest in the world. The difference is the luxurious nature throughout the coast and relatively soft climatic conditions. The water temperature near the coast does not fall below +16 degrees Celsius. According to the content of salt, the reservoir is in third place in the world, after the famous Dead Sea, or Red.
The difference of this gigantic natural reservoir is that several seas enter the colors, composition and features of water. This is the Aegean Sea and Cretan, Ionian and Adriatic. The division of the water area of the seas occurs on the borders of the peninsulas, outstanding far away. A characteristic feature is the lack of high sweats or tides.
Panorama of the Mediterranean Sea
The history of the Mediterranean region refers to distant antiquity. Ancient artifacts belonging to 3 millennia BC were found on the coast. e. The Mediterranean Sea in antiquity and in our time is actively used as a trading path, contributing to the commodity exchange of countries among themselves.
Since the shore of the giant reservoir is cut by numerous bays and peninsulas, there are many interesting places and attractions attracting tourists from all over the world. Especially interesting is the exotic islands, admiring numerous tourists with unusual fruits, skiing the life of local residents, unusual traditions. This is Sardinia and Sicily, Crete and Cyprus.
Where is the Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is located in the center between the three main main students:
Therefore, it is also called - among the lands. The sea is washes the coast of 22 countries of the world, providing unique opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation. The water area has many large and small islands, having a different area and population.
The largest islands:
Mediterranean Sea on the map
The most comfortable beaches are located in Antalya, Side and Alanya. In Kemer, the coast pebble, not very comfortable for swimming children.
Coordinates of the Mediterranean on the map:
- Latitude - 35 ° 00'00 "
- Longitude - 18 ° 00'00 "
How to get to the Mediterranean Sea
You can get to the Mediterranean Region in several ways:
From the capital of Belarus, trains are sent to Varna, through Bucharest. There you can transfer to Thessaloniki (Greece), located on the Mediterranean coast. Prices are cheaper here.
From Moscow, or St. Petersburg.
Tourists from the Russian Federation can be riding immediately to Nice (Italy). It is very convenient not to do tedious transfers along the way. Then the train can be reached directly to the coastal Liguria. Luxury sandy beaches, comfortable hotels and the mild climate of this resort are perfectly suitable for relaxing families with children.
When it is better to visit the Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea has soft, centuries established by the climate. The sea fills two large currents: Canary and Levantinsky. Both flux are warm, carry comfortable warm water straight to the coast. Therefore, in the winter period, the water temperature is + 12 ° C, and in summer + 25 ° C and higher.
Since in winter on the Mediterranean coast is pretty cool (from + 6 ° to + 16 ° C), it is better to travel in this region in the summer. The strong heat here does not happen. A comfortable summer temperature does not always reach + 30 ° C. Sneaking up in a warm transparent sea, admire local attractions, sunbathe on the beach - what could be better in a hot summer day!
In all Mediterranean resorts, infrastructure has been perfectly developed. Everywhere there is a large chain of shops, markets, entertainment complexes. Luxury luxury restaurants and modern bars are taking tourists with bright signs, neon advertising, delicious dishes, excellent service.
Coastal beach complexes of Turkey, Italy, Egypt sparkle with impeccable purity and high level of service. Hotels, even with a small number of stars, admire excellent living conditions and good service.
- Mediterranean Sea Coordinates
- Mediterranean Sea Coordinates on the map
- Mediterranean Sea Panorama
Travel agencies in vain offer sightseeing trips around the coast, where you can admire not only beautiful landscapes of nature, but also numerous monuments of antiquity.
To adapt to the local climate, it takes as quickly as possible, you need to slowly walk along the coast for several days, deeply inhaling clean sea air and rejoicing warm sunny days. Do not forget about safety measures. Be sure to use the protective cream to not get a burn from affectionate, but dangerous at noon of the sun. During swimming, you should not swim too far, so as not to face predatory sea animals, not to get into the strength of a strong current capable of carrying a person far into the depths of the sea.
What to see in the vicinity
The Mediterranean land is replete with monuments of ancient history, archeology, architecture, architecture. This is a variety of temples, mosques, ancient ruins, towers in Side. Travelers are happy to visit these historical sights, not forgetting to acquire unique souvenirs or vintage household items. In Aspendos, Pamukkale, Perge and Side, you can see antique settlements and cities.
Ancient ruins produce a great impression by their huge sizes, unusual architecture, inscriptions on an ancient incomprehensible language. Alanya is replete with the wealth of ancient attractions. This is the famous Red Tower, the ancient ship shipyard, the fortress of the 13th century. It is especially interesting to visit the cave complex Damyslatsh, who surprising his pristine underground beauty. In Cappadocia you can look at the magnificent festival of balloons.
The indescribable impression leaves a huge aquarium in Belek. The underwater tunnel is full of giant, medium and very small inhabitants of sea depths. Here you can completely see the gigantic mouth of sharks or tentacles of terrible jellyfish. In all its glory, marine animals are safely sailed right above the heads of tourists, giving the opportunity to make a luxurious photo.
Mediterranean resorts are a unique place. Here you can not only have fun and interesting to relax, but to get acquainted with the deep-sea underwater world, the ancient ruins, old towers. Numerous diving clubs make it possible for diving or underwater hunting. And beautiful golden beaches are hung tourists for a full-fledged holiday.
The Mediterranean Sea is a unique pool that shares three continents. The countries of the Mediterranean include the countries of the European Union, Asia and Africa. At tourists, the Mediterranean is always associated with a mild climate, warm water, delicious food and a good rest. The area of this largest sea is more than 3 million square meters. km, and its composition includes the Black Sea, the Marmara and Azov Sea. Consider which countries are washed by the Water Mediterranean and where it is better to rest in interest.
Countries werehed by the Mediterranean Sea
It is washes 21 state. All these countries are located on the affectionate coasts of the largest sea in the world, and the coastal zone of these countries is distinguished by landscaped beaches and warm gentle waters. Consider where the Mediterranean Sea is located on a world map with countries around it. On the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea are the resorts of the following countries:
- Morocco - Tangier and Saidia.
- Spain - Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Cartagena, Ibiza, Malaga.
- Algeria - Bear, Oran, Annaba.
- France - Cote d'Azur, Nice, Cannes, Saint-Tropez, Corsica.
- Tunisia - Kelibia, Monastir, Bizerta.
- Italy - Alghero, Sardinia, Syracuse.
- Libya - Tripoli, Kufra, Missrata, Ubari, Tobruk.
- Monaco - all the state is one whole resort.
- Egypt - Alexandria, Dellis, El Alamen, Baltim.
- Malta - Valletta, Sliema, St. Julians, Budzhib.
- Israel - Nahariya, Haifa, Ashdod, Accitation, Herzliya.
- Slovenia - Portorož, Isolo.
- Lebanon - Juni, Tir.
- Croatia - Dalmatia, Istria.
- Syria - Latakia, Badrouse, Al-Samra.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina - Neum.
- Turkey - Izmir, Bodrum, Marmaris, Kemer, Antalya, Alanya, Belek.
- Montenegro - Budva, Milocher, Petrovac.
- Cyprus - Larnaca, Limassol, Protaras, Tuscany.
- Albania - Verra, Himar, Saranda.
- Greece - Crete, Kitir, Metoni, Rhodes.
Also, countries in the Mediterranean as a Palestinian state and the Northern region of Cyprus, as well as Daklia, Gibraltar and Akrotiri, have access to sunny beaches. Undoubtedly, Greece, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Italy and France were recognized as the most favorite among tourists from this list of states. It is here that beach rest lovers from all over the planet are striving, because there are best beaches and resort areas.
The depth of the Mediterranean - Maximum and Medium
The depth of the Mediterranean Sea is sufficiently diverse and depends on the region. Conditionally the Mediterranean can be divided into three main basin - Western, central and eastern. Which depth in each of the pools is visible on the depth map, because the bottom relief of such a huge reservoir is distinguished by the structure in each region. The maximum depth is observed in southern Greece in the deepwater groove and is 5120 m. However, the average depth of the Mediterranean does not exceed 1540 m.
The length and width of the Mediterranean Sea is not exactly indicated, the fact is that the pool constantly changes its borders and calculate accurate values is almost impossible. The length of the Mediterranean Sea from the extreme northern to the most southern plot is approximately 3200 km, and from Western to the extreme eastern point 1200 km. The total area is 2 500 sq. Km. The temperature of the water during the winter months is 12C °, and in the high summer season 25c °.
The structure of the Mediterranean
An interesting fact, scientists believe that the Mediterranean basin is nothing more than the remnants of the ancient prehistoric Ocean basin thethis that covered the water main part of the planet. In addition to the Mediterranean, these residues also include the Black Sea, Aral and Caspian. Today, with the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean is connected by the strait called Gibraltar, it is known to everyone, but not many know that this shed takes place between the two rocks, which were on Earth in the times of antique heroes and were called then, Hercules poles.
To understand what is washes the Mediterranean Sea, you should look at the geographical images of the planet. On the set from the satellite and paper cards you can see that the four largest peninsulas are cut into the Water of the Mediterranean Sea, this is the Appeenssic, Balkan, Pyrenean Peninsula and Small Asia. Also in the Mediterranean water area there is a cluster of the largest islands, which are also loved by tourists, in the first place is Sicily, Ibiza, Crete, Mallorca, Malta and Rhodes.
How many seas in the Mediterranean?
The Mediterranean is a huge pool that combines 11 seas in itself, it is:
- Balearic SEA.
- Alboran SEA.
- Tyrrhenian SEA.
- Ligurian SEA.
- Ionian SEA.
- Adriatic SEA.
- Aegean SEA.
- Cretan SEA.
- Libyan SEA.
- Cyprian SEA.
- Levantine SEA.
Also, the Mediterranean Sea includes pools of the Black, Marble and Azov Seas.
In what ocean is the Mediterranean Sea? This question most often puts tourists to a dead end. However, you need to know that this pool belongs to the Atlantic Ocean and is the intermarkets of the Atlantic Sea. It will not be superfluous, and which rivers fall into the Mediterranean Sea, the largest water arteries that eat this pool are Ron, by, Tiber, Ebro and Neal.
Water Mediterranean Sea in the Black Sea Pool
Approximately 370 thousand years ago, when the boundaries of sushi and water were completely different, and the flows were not similar to the current, the salty waters of the Mediterranean were fluent in the water of the Black Sea. Then, because of the movements of the earth's crust, the strait in the Mediterranean closed, and the access of salt waters in the Black Sea ceased. After that, the power of the sea took place only at the expense of fresh rivers, and the reservoir quickly disperse.
After that, black several times became salty, then fresh, and every time the fauna, flora and climatic conditions changed in the region. The last time the Black Sea survived the coalion of 7 thousand years ago and after that the flow of salt water does not stop. Today we know the Black Sea as a salty, but at any time, nature can present the next surprise and the movement of the earth's crust again can overlap this stream and the next desalination of the Black Sea Water will occur.
The largest cities of the Mediterranean coast
On the coast of the Mediterranean Sea there are thousands of cities. Some of them are the largest tourist centers, others just small fishing or industrial towns where foreign tourists rarely come. The largest cities of the Mediterranean Sea are Tripoli, Barcelona, Alexandria, Marseille, Antalya, Cannes, Istanbul, Genoa, Athens and Naples.
Holidays in the Mediterranean
Gathering to the Mediterranean Sea need to correctly choose the resort, because each of us has their own requirements for rest, and therefore you should know where it will be better than you. Consider the best vacation options for interests:
- Silent beach holidays . If you are fans of silence and privacy, it is better for vacation to choose Croatian and Albanian beaches. These countries are washes by the Mediterranean Sea Ionic and Adriatic Pools. Prices here are more than acceptable, and there are few tourists, because the tourist business in these states is at the stage of formation, which means that every tourist here is found as the most expensive guest.
- Training tourism Perfectly organized in Malta. Here you can not only relax in comfortable conditions, but also to learn English. Today there are many tours, where training and recreation are included in a single program. You can study the English language with the whole family, for this, groups are organized for different ages.
- Noisy and fun companies Waiting for you in Egypt, Turkey and Greece. Prices are quite acceptable here, and most often a ticket includes a full range of services. These countries on the coast of the Mediterranean offer a comfortable stay, which can be combined with an overview of interesting attractions and shopping.
- Exotic holiday on the Mediterranean Sea. For exotic holidays should go to Tunisia or Morocco. Here tourists are waiting for not only increased comfort of hotels and exotic food, but also exciting sightseeing programs that will survive unforgettable impressions of the meeting with wild inhabitants of Africa.
- If you prefer Fashionable holiday Surrounded by Russian-speaking tourists - to you in Israel. Prices are somewhat higher here than in other countries, but this deficiency is compensated by special comfort and diversity of therapeutic procedures, as well as interesting excursions.
Mediterranean Sea - The cradle of mankind! In the Mediterranean coasts, powerful and great civilizations originated, on the ruins of which the modern world developed and flourishes.
Its square is able to easily absorb Western Europe, the color is to surprise with beauty and saturation, the noise of waves - calm down, and fishing - to delight ...
What is this amazing part of the world's ocean? WHERE LOW WHAT WHAT COUNTRIES OF COUNTRIES, What are the depths and shores, what peaceful and dangerous animals and plants hides in the punch of their waters, which secrets stores - all this and a little more you will learn from this article.
1. Where is the Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is located between Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by continents, and only with the help of the Gibraltar Strait, connects with the northern part of the Atlantic, the Bosphorus Strait - with the Black Sea, and with the help of a Suez Channel - it borders with the Red Sea.
2. What countries wash
The Mediterranean Sea, is called, due to its location - among the mainland (lands). The water of this sea is washed in the direction from the west to the east of the coast of more than 22 countries, including: Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Malta, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.
The coastal area of the sea is represented by a variety of islands, various areas and population, the largest of which are considered:
- about. Corsica;
- about. Balearic;
- about. Sardinia;
- about. Sicily;
- about. Cyprus;
- about. Crete.
The coastline of the Mediterranean has many independent water sectors: Ligurian, Adriatic, Tyrrhen, Black, Ionia, Azov, Balearic, Aegean, Cretoe, Levancen, Libyan Sea and Sea Alboran.
3. History and secrets of the Mediterranean Sea
The modern Mediterranean Sea is the residue of the ancient pool of the Tesis, once occupied the territory of Europe, North Africa, South and Western Asia. For many millions of years, the strait connecting with the ocean has repeatedly closed and opened. Subsequently, the sea dried and no longer could be filled to the former sizes. Modern relief formed due to the change in the climate of the Earth.
The Mediterranean Territory is one of the first to be populated by a person and it was here for the first time a writing originated and many great states were argued, world religions originated.
In 1833, the Ancient Sea began to study this ancient sea, a geologist by profession Ch. Lyleiel.
The most interesting movie (published Slava Yanko) about the emergence of the Mediterranean civilization you can see here
Cognitive film in English about the Mediterranean Sea
4. Natural characteristics of the Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Sea has an area of equal to 2965.5 thousand square meters. km. The average depth of the sea is 1500 m. The largest is 5,092 m and is located in the depression of the Ionian Sea (the western part of the Peloponnese peninsula). The total length of the sea is 3,800 m.
The degree of saline of some seas:
- Black Sea - 18%;
- The Adriatic Sea is 36%;
- Aegean Sea - 37%;
- Ligurian Sea - 38%;
- The Mediterranean Sea is 39%.
The word "climate" from the ancient Greek language translates as a "tilt" and refers to the slope of the sunlight relative to the earth's surface. The climate is a long-term, established weather mode, in contrast to weather conditions that are changeable.
Climatic conditions are due to the location of the sea - the subtropical belt defines such a climate into an independent type "Mediterranean".
For the countries washed by the waters of this sea in winter, a decrease in atmospheric pressure is characterized, which leads to precipitation and storms. In such a period over the sea, cyclone hangs, accompanied by cloudiness, winds in different directions are enhanced. The height of the waves can exceed 8 m. In the summer, the turnover is an anticyclone, the pressure rises and the clear, solar is prevailing the weather.
The temperature regime in the southern part of the sea ranges from 14 to 16 degrees, northern - from 7 to 10 degrees. In the summer (August month), the average air temperature is 22 - 24 degrees in the northern part and up to 30 degrees in the southern regions.
Air humidity in summer - 50 - 65%, and in winter from 65 to 80%. Cloudy in summer from 0 to 3 points, in winter - 6 points.
Hot cities: Larnaca, Limassol, Tel Aviv and Antalya. In these regions, the temperature of the water in the summer months reaches 27 degrees. Next, there are cities with water temperatures not more than 25 degrees: Valencia, Malta and Heraklion. An even less hot (up to 22 degrees of water) are considered the coast of Barcelona, Athens and Malaga.
4.2 Relief DNA
The relief of the Mediterranean Sea is represented by thresholds, pools, ridges, varnishes, bays and volcanic cones. The sea pool is divided into western and eastern parts. So, the bottom of the Western pool is more than a hollow, and the bottom of the Eastern - with depressions and ridges stretching from Cyprus to the Apennine Peninsula.
Here, under aquatic purse there are cones of acting and extinguished volcanoes and tectonic depressions. So, the deepest place in the sea - Hellenskaya Vpadina, depth 5121 m. The bottom of the sea is rich in the deposits of stone salt, potassium and sulfur. Natural gas and oil are produced here.
The largest bays of the Mediterranean Sea:
- Cider or big sith;
- Gabes or Small Sirt.
Interestingly, at the bottom of the sea lies many of the remains of the ships, the exact number of which, until today, is not established.
The magnitude of the evaporation of the Mediterranean water exceeds the amount of atmospheric precipitation, as the sea is surrounded by countries with a dry climate. The aqueous deficit is replenished by the North Atlantic Waters coming through the Gibraltar Strait. In the process of evaporation, the saline and the density of water increases, which settles at a depth, which makes this water area more warm. Depending on seasonality, the density of water changes. Interestingly, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most warm and salted seas.
Water circulation due to wind streams. The flow rate at open marine sites reaches up to 1 km / h, in the straits - from 2 to 4 km / h. Water transparency from 50 to 60 m. Water has a rich blue color.
4.4 Flips and foals
Is there a sea of tides and flows (periodic oscillations of water level up and down, as the result of changing the position of the sun and the moon relative to the Earth)? There are, they are not large on average from 1 to 2 cm in both directions. This is due to the fact that the sea is cut off with a narrow strait of Gibraltar from the Atlantic and, accordingly, the gravitational power of the moon does not affect it.
You can read more about tides and bets on the pages of Wikipedia https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Read_
Also on tides and flows are influenced by the depth, saltness of water, atmospheric pressure, coastal relief. The biggest tides are observed in the bay called "Gabes", which is located on the northern part of Africa and is connected with its huge shape (100 km in length and width).
Rush of the tide - when the sun and the moon are located either on one side of the Earth (new moon) or by different (full moon) and the forces of attraction of these objects are combined, which affects the appearance of tides.
With the forecast of the height of the Mediterranean wave, the tides on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, you can find on the website of oceanographic and limbical studies https://isramar.ocean.org.il/israramar2009/tidehadera/default.aspx
5. The life of the Mediterranean
The fauna of the Mediterranean is represented by animals and a floral world, which is associated with the geological history of the sea and habitat.
5.1 Vegetable world
Despite the meager phytoplankton, located in the upper layers of the sea, vegetation here is diverse: more than 800 species of green, brown, red algae and plants. Noteworthy is the most largest marine grass in the world - "Posidoni Oceanic" in the world (more than 700 km). This is one of the oldest plants whose age is more than 100 thousand years.
5.2 Animal Mir
The animal world of the Mediterranean Sea is diverse, but the number of residents of residents is not large, which is associated with the poor development of plankton in the Mediterranean waters.
Plankton - Different organisms freely floating in water (bacteria, algae, invertebrate larvae, small mollusks, etc.). More information about this form of life you can find on the pages of Wikipedia https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/plankton
The animal world is represented by more than 800 species of a variety of mollusks: squid, cuttlefish, octopuses, crabs, shrimps and other.
5.3 Mediterranean Fish
Winter period is the most massive on the cluster of different types of fish, as they are spawn and feed (spring-summer), so they keep more dispersed.
Among the inhabitants there are more than 700 species of various fish, more than 290 of which live in the coastal waters of Israel: Fugu, Lavrak, Zublik, Grier, Palamide, Lufar, Fish-protein, Barracuda, Sargan, Marmir, Spitz, Kefal, Aras, Soldia, Saragus, Dorada.
Blue shark lives in the Mediterranean. All kinds of Mediterranean sharks are over 40. There are also skates, muren, reaching 0.5 m in length, dolphins, seals, sea pigs and linations. There are also marine turtles that are presented with 3 species.
Detailed list of fish living in the Mediterranean Sea, you will find on Wikipedia pages https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPI_Reb_Sedifier_Mor
The Israeli coast has 4 types of volatile fish:
- Exocoetus Obtusirostris;
- exocoetus volitans;
- Hirundichthys Rondeletii;
- ParExocoetus Mento.
With a detailed list of fish living in the Mediterranean Sea of Israel, you can find here http://www.israfish.com/webfish/articles/israelfish/fish_isra_yam_tihon.htm
5.4 Dangerous inhabitants of the Mediterranean Sea
Akula - Not only the growing inhabitants of the sea, but also an indispensable cleaners of marine expanses from different types of patients, weak inhabitants. Their population is reduced. So, for example, the shark-hammer was last observed only in 1955.
Skat-tailing - It has poison spikes located in the tail of the body.
Electric Stingray - Can you give up any electric shock.
Sea Yersh It has a poisonous "awesome" and "prickly" body. When attacking, he injected this deadly poison in the attacker. Excellent disguised among multicolored stones and seaweed.
What is the seaside yoke, which lifestyle leads, in which places it lives, what tackle it catches, how they catch - read here
Moray, Uneg. - One-year-old night predators with an impressive weight up to 50 kg. The bite of such a fish can be dangerous for a person.
Fire Worms - Bright, with fluffy bristles Marine inhabitants, moving through water, very slowly. They are not dangerous in themselves, but it is not recommended to touch their bodies, since the bristles contain a deadly poison. If the danger occurs, these bristles fly away from the body and stuff. From such a meeting, a person on the body remains burns.
Violet Medusa - The most dangerous of their brothers. It occurs on the coast of Italy, Cyprus. For example, at the shores of Israel, Jesus can be found in April. The length of the tentacle is up to 50 cm, a body with a diameter of up to 15 cm. The danger of jellyfish in their ability to leave painful burns on the human body, which are easily curable with anti-inflammatory funds.
But the trouble from meeting with Sea hero May cause painful sensations and even suppuration of the wounds from the needles stuck in the skin.
The initiator of the attack can perform Sea dragon - bottom predatory fish with big head and long body. It is dangerous in that it lives in shallow water, masking in or streaming. Coming on the fish-aggressor, a deep wound is formed on the sole from a poisonous spike. The spikes of the dead inhabitant are also dangerous, since the effect of poison in spikes does not disappear for a long time. To provide emergency assistance, it is recommended to consult a doctor.
Detailed and most interesting article about the catching of the sea dragon - only the most interesting here
Actinia (marine anemone) - Coral polyps, externally similar to algae. When touched these animals, pain and burning sensation, which are fast passing. For example, "Actinia-Magician" is still moving, and its tentacles are poisonous. It is not fatal for a person, but the marine inhabitants are dying with her.
One of the most dangerous fish of the Mediterranean is Fug Fugu. What and why it is dangerous, you can read on the page of our site http://isradag.ru/vidi-ryb-izrailya/abunavka-fugu-opisanie-kak-i-gde-lovit.html
Barracuda - Sea aggressive and lightning predator, capable of water with poor visibility, confusing a person with prey to attack him and bite himself. More about this edible, but the ruthless inhabitant you can read here http://isradag.ru/vidi-ryb-izrailya/barrakuda-malita-opisanie-kak-lovit-i-gde.html
6. The coastal features
North coast It has a complex relief: the shores are high, stony and cool with not small bays.
South coast - even. From the western part of the mountain, and in the east they disappear and the beach becomes even and sandy (almost deserted).
The total length of the Mediterranean coast is 46 thousand km. Interestingly, this water area would be enough to absorb Western Europe with ease!
6.1 Sea Coast of Israel
Israel is washed by the western waters of the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Territory extends from the Northern Border of Israel to the Gaza Sector. Also on the coast is located plain called "Coastal", stretching for 187 km from Lebanon to the Gaza Sector. The plain is divided into cultural and geographic areas and there are many sandy beaches on it.
Learn more about the plain you can read on the pages of Wikipedia https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/zraeli_Previe
The coast of the Mediterranean Sea consists not only of plains and beaches, but rocky shores and reefs.
6.2 Ports of Israel
- Ashdod. - City-Industrial Center of Israel. Here is the largest port that meets more than 50% of goods from around the world.
- Tel Aviv port or old port located in the northwest of the capital. It was founded in 1936 and acted until 1965, after which his functions were transferred to the port of Ashdod. Now on the territory of the port is a tourist area.
- Port Haifa - The second largest port.
- Jaffo - The oldest Israeli port (more than 3000 years). Currently combined with the port of Tel Aviv.
7. Useful advice
- Adaptation to the Mediterranean climate - unhurried summer walks on the sunny coast;
- apply protective creams from sunlight;
- Beware of marine inhabitants;
- Do not forget about high waves, rocky day and very dangerous jackhafts.
Read more about such a phenomenon How can you read on the pages of Wikipedia https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/otube_th
Short video about what to do if you got into the jackhaft for the Mediterranean Sea
8. Interesting facts about the Mediterranean Sea
Ancient Mediterranean Sea had a lot of titles:
- "AKDENIZ" or "White Sea" (Turks);
- "Our Sea" or "Internal" (ancient Romans);
- "Sunshine Sea" (Babylonian).
- "Great Sea" (Hebrew הַיָָּּ הַגָּדוֹל, Ha-Yam Ha Gadol).
This sea includes many small seas and different islands in their expanses, which in antiquity were independent states.
The Mediterranean Sea is famous for the habitat of such an animal as a "sponge", which in the consequence got the name "toilet", since the dried skeletons of this inhabitant were used as a washcloth.
Spanish archaeologists in 2016 was discovered at a depth of 70 meters ship of the Roman Empire, sank more than 1.5 thousand years ago.
In the Messinsky Strait, you can see the mirage.
And what will happen if you dry this great pool? You will find an answer to this question if you browse this entertaining film (published by I. Garkalikov)
9. Useful links
http://modernlib.ru/books/dzhon_lloyd/vtoraya_kniga_vseobschih_zabluzhdeniy/read/ - a lot of interesting facts about the Mediterranean are written in the book of universal delusions.
http://earth06.narod.ru/a_okean/6-2.htm is an interesting article that gives the characteristic of the Mediterranean Sea.
https://studwood.ru/637359/geografiya/techniya_prilivy_sredizemnogo_morya is a cognitive article about the currents and tides of the Mediterranean Sea, temperature, flora and fauna.
The coast of the Mediterranean Sea (France). Photo E.A. Lyapunova
MEDITERRANEAN SEA, Intermarike Sea of Atlantic OK., Between Europe, Africa and Asia. In the Pool S. M. Include also Sea Marmara , Black Sea и Azov Sea . S. m. And the sea of its pool is washed by the shores of Abkhazia, Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Georgia, Egypt, Israel, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Russia, Romania, Syria, Slovenia, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, France, Croatia, Montenegro. S. m. Connects in the West Gibraltar Prol. With the Atlantic OK. In S. m. Seaside seas: Adriatic, Albão, Balearic, Ionian, Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, Aegean. In the northeast of Prol. Dardanelles are connected to the marble m. And then the prol. Bosphorus - with black m., In the south-east of the Suez Canal - with the Red Sea. Pl. 2505 thousand km 2, water volume 3603 thousand km 3. The greatest depth of 5121 m. The shores of S. m. Gorous coasts will expire. abrasion, aligned, low - lagoon-lifted and delta; For Vost. The coast of the Adriatic m. Characterized by the shore of Dalmatian type. Most means. Bay: Valencia, Gabes (Small Sirt), Genoese, Lyon, Taranto, Cider (Big Sirt); The largest islands: Balearic, Cyprus, Corsica, Crete, Sardinia, Sicily. In S. m. Large rivers flow: Nile, By, Ron, Tiber, Ebro, etc.; The total annual river flow is OK. 430 km 3.
Relief and geological structure of the bottom
The bottom of S. m. Disintegrates on several. Kotlovin with relatively steep mainland slopes, with depths of 2000-4000 m; Along the shores of the hollow, the narrow strip of the shelf, expanding only between the coast of Tunisia and Sicily, as well as within the Adriatic Sea. By geomorphology. Signs of S. m. It is divided into three pools: Western, or Algeria-Provencan, swimming pool with max. sv. 2800 m, uniting the depressions of the seas of the albão, Balearic and Ligurian, as well as the depression of the Tyrrensky m. - St. 3600 m; Central - with the depths of St. 5100 m (central hollow and depressions of the seas of the Adriatic and Ionical) and East, or Levancen, with the greatest depths of approx. 4380 m (depressions of the seas of Levant, Aegean and Marble).
Basins S. m. Belong Alpine-Himalayan moving belt . In the Adriatic M. Allocate the Adriatic Platform (or Adrio) with the Late Proterozoic Foundation (according to the majority of scientists - "Refrigerant" of the African continent). Western (Algerian-Provensky's) swimming pools are Cenozoic stagnaya pools with oceanic. bark or continental bark with strongly abbreviated power due to stretching; The Ionian and Levancetic Basins are relict basins of the Mesokinozoic Ocean (see Art. Tetis ); Wpadina Aegean M. - Cenozoic pool in the rear of the Aegean volcoloch. Island arc. MN. Areas S. m. Keep tectonic. Mobility accompanied by intense seismicity. Sovr. Convergence (rapprochement) of African and Eurasian lithospheric plates is implemented in active zones Subduction to the center. and east. Pools S. m. (Calabrian, Aegean and Cyprus). Vulcanism is manifested. The bottom of some Kotlovin is covered by non-war-quaternary strata vulcanic. and sedimentary rocks (in the Balearo and Ligurian seas with a capacity of up to 5-7 km). Among the deposits of the Upper Miocene in the Algerian-Olive basin means. Share belongs thicker Evaporites (Power of St. 1.5-2 km) forming salt-pool structures. On the sides and in the center of the Tyrrhenian basin found several. large faults with dedicated to them extinct and existing volcanoes; Some of them form high underwater mountains (Lipar O-Wa, Vavilov Volcano, etc.). The highest underwater mountain rises above the bottom of the sea at 2850 m. Center. and east. The pools are partially filled with river removal products, especially the Nile. On sowing Shelf (Aegean m.) and south. and east. Shelfs S. m. Detected fields of oil and natural fuel gas ( Algerian Libyan oil and gas pool , Sakharo-East-Eastern Basin Pool Pool ).
Determined by the provision of S. m. In subtropical. Belt and has a lot of specificity, which highlights it to independently. Mediterranean climate type characterized by soft damp winter and hot dry summer. In winter, a low atmospheric pressure is installed above the sea, bringing unstable weather with frequent storms and abundant precipitation; Cold sowing. Winds downgrade the temperature of the air. Local winds develop: Mistral in the Lyon Hall area. And boron in the east of the Adriatic Sea. In the summer most S. m. It covers the crest of the Azores Anticyclone, which determines the predominance of clear weather with a small cloudiness and a small amount of precipitation. In the summer months, dry fogs and dusty blades, submitted from Africa south. Wind Syrocco. In vet The pool is developing sustainable north. Winds - ethesy. Cf. The temperature of the air in January varies from 14-16 ° C at the south. shores to 7-10 ° C in the north, in August, respectively - from 25-30 to 22-24 ° C. Evaporation from the surface of the sea reaches 1250 mm per year (3130 km 3). Relates. Air humidity varies from 50-65% in summer to 65-80% in winter. Cloudy in summer 0-3 points, in winter approx. 6 points. Cf. Annual precipitation 400 mm (approx. 1000 km 3), varies from 1100-1300 mm in the north-west to 50-100 mm in the south-east, with a minimum in July - August, the maximum in December. Characteristic Mirage often observed in the messinsky prol. (Fata-Morgana).
The coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Algeria). Stock Foto HICHEM MEROUCHE / FLICKR.com
It is formed under the influence of its position in subtropical. The belt, where evaporation prevails above the sediments, and the river flow is small, which in the aggregate creates t. n. A negative fresh balance that causes the coalion of near-surface waters, and in addition, leads to a decrease in the level, which in turn contributes to a constant influx in S. m. Surface less salted waters from the Atlantic OK. And the Black Sea. Circulation in the surface layer S. m. Set by the stream of Atlantic. waters included through Gibraltar Prol. and moving to the east in the form of a Meandering North African current. With his north. The parties are formed by the cyclonich system. Crooked, with southern - anticyclonic. Of the most stable cyclonic in Zap. The pool is distinguished by cycles in the m. Albão, Algerian-Provenkom region and the Tyrrhensky m., from anticyclonic - from the coast of Morocco and Libya. To the center. and east. Atlantic pools. Water comes through the Tunisian Prol. And continue to move along the coast of Africa. Part of this flow deviates north to the Ionian, Adriatic and Aegean seas, forming a complex cyclonich system there. Crupions, of which are the major Ionian, Adriatic, Afono Chios, Cretan and Levancen. South of the North African flow is formed anticyclonic. Circiers in Gabes and Cider and Cydra and Crete-African. In the intermediate layers of S. m. There is a transfer of Levance waters in Zap. direction, but not a single stream, but according to complex trajectories in the form of a numerous. Crooked. Cf. The speed of the transfer of water on the surface has the order of approx. 15 cm / s, and in intermediate layers up to 5 cm / s. For deep and bottom waters, slow meridional transfer from North is characteristic. Foci of formation to the south, where they fill deep-water basins. Cf. The pace of water on the surface in February falls from the north to south from 8-12 to 17 ° C to the Vost. and center. parts and from 11 to 15 ° C in the West. In August Wed The temperature of the water varies from 19 to 25 ° C, in the extreme east it increases to 27-30 ° C. A large evaporation causes a strong increase in saline, its values increase from west to east from 36.0 to 39.5. The density of water on the surface varies from 1023-1027 kg / m 3in summer to 1027-1029 kg / m 3in winter. During the winter cooling period in areas with elevated density, intensive convective mixing is developing, which leads to the formation of high-headed and warm intermediate waters to the vehicle. Swimming pool and deep waters in the north of Zap. Pool, in the Adriatic and Aegean seas. At the bottom tempo and salting S. m. It is one of the most warm and salty seas of world OK. (12.6-13.4 ° C and 38.4-38.7 ‰, respectively). Relates. Transparency of water up to 50-60 m, color - intense blue. Tides in the OSN. semi-sufficient, their value is less than 1 m, but in depth. Points in combination with wind turbines of level fluctuations can reach 4 m (Genoese Hall, in North. Shore about. Corsica, etc.). In narrow straits, strong tidal flows are observed (Messinsky Prol.). Max. The excitement is observed in winter, the wave height reaches 6-8 m.
Water exchange through sheds
It plays an important role in the circulation of water and the formation of hydrological. Structures S. m. The depth of the threshold in the Gibraltar Prol. OK. 400 m, which completely isolates S. m. From the receipt of cold depth water of the Atlantic OK. The surface waters of the Atlantic come through the Gibraltar Prol. In the upper 150-180-meter layer in the amount of 42.3 thousand km 3a year atlantic. Water, and in the bottom layer of the Strait in the Atlantic is made 40.8 thousand km 3Mediterranean water. In Tunisian Prol., Where the depths above the threshold do not exceed 500 m, the sharing of deep waters is not possible. and center. pools. Water exchange over a two-layer threshold: in the near-surface layer of Atlantic. Waters are transferred to the east, and in the hospital Mediterranean - west. Water exchange between the black and Mediterranean seas is determined by the difference in the levels of neighboring seas, differences in water density and partially synoptic. atmosphere. In the Aegean m. Through Dardanelles in the upper layer, 350 km 3Ceremonial Black Sea Water, and in the bottom layer it follows 180 km 3High-headed Mediterranean.
Vegetation and animal world
S. m. It has a relatively small amount of phyto and zooplankton, which limits the development of larger animals feeding on them, including fish. The amount of phytoplankton in surface horizons is 8-10 mg / m 3. Very varied algae, among which peridine and diatoms prevail. Fauna S. m. It has a large species diversity, however, the number of representatives from deployment. species are small. Dolphins are found, whitewashing seal, sea turtles. Fish is up to 550 species (sharks, macumbrid, herdo, anchovy, kefali, cornon, tuna, pelamids, stavids, etc.). OK. 70 species of fish - endemics, among them: Skates, Depth. Types of hamses, bulls, sea dogs, guban, fish-needles. Oysters, Mediterranean-Black Sea Middine, Seaidini have the greatest importance from edible mollusks. Octopuses, squid, sepia, crabs, lobrasts are common from invertebrates; Numerous types of jellyfish, siphonophore, Salp, Piros; In some areas, especially in the Aegean m., Sponges and Red Coral dwell.
Country of the coast S. m. Represent historical. Active economy area. activities, crossroads of transport routes. In the city of Port Said (Egypt), Suez International is originated. mor. Channel. OSN. The flow of cargo is sent to Europe, to a lesser extent to Turkey, their significant proportion falls on oil and liquefied natural gas (transported from countries of the East, including on the Suez Channel, from North Africa). The largest mor. Trading ports: Marseille (France), Trieste, Genoa, Naples, Taranto, Venice, Bari and Augusta - Syracuses (Italy), Algeciras, Barcelona, Valencia and Tarragona (Spain), Piraeus and Thessaloniki (Greece), Izmir and Iskenderun (Turkey ), Ashdod and Haifa (Israel), Alexandria and Port Said (Egypt). Developed ferry mor. Message, including international, internal. Transportation playing the greatest role in Greece. The Mediterranean is a region of illegal migration of the population from poor countries in Africa and Asia to Europe; OSN. Directions: From Libya to Italy and Malta, through the Gibraltar Prol. To Spain, through Turkey to Greece.
S. m. - One of the most important areas in the world in the world. tourism. GL Types of tourism: beach, cultural and informative and cruise (one of the leading among world mor. Swimming pools).
Fishing and aquaculture. Oil and natural gas on the shelves of Greece, Libya, Tunisia are maintained.
Region of concentration of large military. Bases.
For more information about the economy, see articles on the Mediterranean basin states.